Objective: To study whether specific congenital anomalies occur more often with a history of subfertility and/or the use of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
Design: Case-only analyses.
Setting: Not applicable.
Patient(s): We included live births, stillbirths, and terminated pregnancies with congenital anomalies without a known cause that had a birth year between 1997 and 2010 (n = 4,525). A total of 4,185 malformed cases were born to fertile couples and 340 to subfertile couples, of whom 139 had conceived after IVF/ICSI and 201 had conceived naturally after >12 months.
Main Outcome Measure(s): The contribution, expressed in odds ratios (ORs), of a history of subfertility and IVF/ICSI to each specific type of congenital anomaly, imprinting disorder, and syndromal disorder.
Result(s): We found subfertility to be associated with an increase in abdominal wall defects (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.43, 95% CI 1.05-5.62), penoscrotal hypospadia (aOR 9.83, 95% CI 3.58-27.04), right ventricular outflow tract obstruction (aOR 1.77, 95% CI 1.06-2.97), and methylation defects causing imprinting disorders (aOR 13.49, 95% CI 2.93-62.06). In vitro fertilization/ICSI was associated with an increased risk of polydactyly (OR 4.83, 95% CI 1.39-16.77) and more specifically polydactyly of the hands (OR 5.02, 95% CI 1.43-17.65).
Conclusion(s): In our registry-based study, parental subfertility was associated with an increase in abdominal wall defects, penoscrotal hypospadia, right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, and methylation defects causing imprinting disorders. In vitro fertilization/ICSI was associated with an increase in polydactyly, mainly of the hands. (C) 2015 by American Society for Reproductive Medicine.