Consensus recommendations on counselling in Phelan-McDermid syndrome, with special attention to recurrence risk and to ring chromosome 22

Sylvia A. Koza, Anne C. Tabet, Maria C. Bonaglia, Stephanie Andres, Britt Marie Anderlid, Emmelien Aten, Dominique Stiefsohn, the European Phelan-McDermid syndrome consortium, D. Gareth Evans, Conny M.A. van Ravenswaaij-Arts*, Sarina G. Kant

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

3 Citaten (Scopus)
9 Downloads (Pure)


This paper focuses on genetic counselling in Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a deletion 22q13.3 or a pathogenic variant in SHANK3. It is one of a series of papers written by the European PMS consortium as a consensus guideline. We reviewed the available literature based on pre-set questions to formulate recommendations on counselling, diagnostic work-up and surveillance for tumours related to ring chromosome 22. All recommendations were approved by the consortium, which consists of professionals and patient representatives, using a voting procedure. PMS can only rarely be diagnosed based solely on clinical features and requires confirmation via genetic testing. In most cases, the family will be referred to a clinical geneticist for counselling after the genetic diagnosis has been made. Family members will be investigated and, if indicated, the chance of recurrence discussed with them. Most individuals with PMS have a de novo deletion or a pathogenic variant of SHANK3. The 22q13.3 deletion can be a simple deletion, a ring chromosome 22, or the result of a parental balanced chromosomal anomaly, influencing the risk of recurrence. Individuals with a ring chromosome 22 have an increased risk of NF2-related schwannomatosis (formerly neurofibromatosis type 2) and atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours, which are associated with the tumour-suppressor genes NF2 and SMARCB1, respectively, and both genes are located on chromosome 22. The prevalence of PMS due to a ring chromosome 22 is estimated to be 10–20%. The risk of developing a tumour in an individual with a ring chromosome 22 can be calculated as 2–4%. However, those individuals who do develop tumours often have multiple. We recommend referring all individuals with PMS and their parents to a clinical geneticist or a comparably experienced medical specialist for genetic counselling, further genetic testing, follow-up and discussion of prenatal diagnostic testing in subsequent pregnancies. We also recommend karyotyping to diagnose or exclude a ring chromosome 22 in individuals with a deletion 22q13.3 detected by molecular tests. If a ring chromosome 22 is found, we recommend discussing personalised follow-up for NF2-related tumours and specifically cerebral imaging between the age of 14 and 16 years.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's8
TijdschriftEuropean journal of medical genetics
Nummer van het tijdschrift7
StatusPublished - jul.-2023

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