Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has extensively been reported as a complex disease affecting patients' health beyond the lungs with a variety of intra-and extrapulmonary components and considerable variability between individuals. This review discusses the assessment of this complexity and underlines the importance of transdisciplinary management programmes addressing the physical, emotional and social health of the individual patient.
COPD management is challenging and requires advanced, sophisticated strategies meeting the patient's individual needs. Due to the heterogeneity and complexity of the disease leading to non-linear and consequently poorly predictable treatment responses, multidimensional patient profiling is crucial to identify the right COPD patient for the right treatment. Current methods are often restricted to general, well-known and commonly used assessments neglecting potentially relevant (interactions between) individual, unique "traits" to finally ensure personalised treatment. Dynamic, personalised and holistic approaches are needed to tackle this multifaceted disease and to ensure personalised medicine and value-based healthcare.