The complement system, and specifically C5a, is involved in renal ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. The 2 receptors for complement anaphylatoxin C5a (C5aR1 and C5aR2) are expressed on leukocytes as well as on renal epithelium. Extensive evidence shows that C5aR1 inhibition protects kidneys from IR injury; however, the role of C5aR2 in IR injury is less clear as initial studies proposed the hypothesis that C5aR2 functions as a decoy receptor. By Using wild-type, C5aR1(-/-), and C5aR2(-/-) mice in a model of renal IR injury, we found that a deficiency of either of these receptors protected mice from renal IR injury. Surprisingly, C5aR2(-/-) mice were most protected and had lower creatinine levels and reduced acute tubular necrosis. Next, an in vivo migration study demonstrated that leukocyte chemotaxis was unaffected in C5aR2(-/-) mice, whereas neutrophil activation was reduced by C5aR2 deficiency. To further investigate the contribution of renal cell-expressed C5aR2 vs. leukocyte-expressed C5aR2 to renal IR injury, bone marrow chimeras were created. Our data show that both renal cell-expressed C5aR2 and leukocyte-expressed C5aR2 mediate IR-induced renal dysfunction. These studies reveal the importance of C5aR2 in renal IR injury. They further show that C5aR2 is a functional receptor, rather than a decoy receptor, and may provide a new target for intervention.