Purpose: Cu(II)-diacetyl-bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone) positron emission tomography (CuATSM PET) is a non-invasive imaging technique that can be used to detect hypoxia and inform prognosis in cancer. Hypoxia and oxidative stress are also hallmarks of various age-related diseases. Whether CuATSM PET has a role in the evaluation of hypoxia and oxidative stress in age-related diseases has yet to be established. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the utility of CuATSM PET in the diagnosis and management of age-related diseases.
Methods: EMBASE, Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Psychinfo were systematically searched for articles published between January 1st 1997 and February 13th 2020. We included articles published in English reporting the use of CuATSM PET in the diagnosis and management of age-related diseases in humans or animals.
Results: Nine articles were included describing CuATSM PET measures in neurological and cardiovascular disease. There was higher CuATSM uptake in diseased compared to control subjects in Parkinson’s disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), myocardial ischemia (MI), cardiac dysautonomia and atherosclerosis. Higher CuATSM uptake was seen in diseased compared to control anatomical areas in PD, cerebrovascular disease (CVD), MI and atherosclerosis. CuATSM uptake was associated with disease severity in PD, ALS, CVD and atherosclerosis. An association between CuATSM uptake and disease duration was shown in atherosclerosis.
Conclusion: CuATSM uptake is higher in neurological and cardiovascular diseases and associated with disease severity and duration. Further investigations using CuATSM PET in other age-related diseases are needed.