Denture wearing status, cardiovascular health profiles, and mortality in edentulous patients: A prospective study with a 27-year follow-up

Jingtao Dai, An Li*, Yang Liu, Yuntao Chen, Geerten Has E. Tjakkes, Anita Visser, Shulan Xu

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutput: ArticleAcademicpeer review


Objectives: Life's Simple 7 (LS7) metrics provide insight into improving cardiovascular health (CVH) and help reduce mortality risks. Edentulous older adults have a higher mortality risk than dentulous ones, probably due to worse oral function. It is reported that wearing dentures will decrease the mortality risk factor by improving oral function. This prospective study aimed to investigate if denture wearing could modify the association between CVH profile and mortality risk among edentulous elderly.

Methods: From the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), 1,735 edentulous older adults (mean age 69.4 years old) with CVH profiles and data on denture wearing status were selected for this study. CVH profiles according to LS7 metrics were classified into poor, intermediate, or ideal. Denture wearers were defined as those wearing complete dentures in both arches all the time or only when awake. Multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression was conducted to estimate the association of CVH profiles with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Stratified analyses and the testing of interaction terms were used to evaluate the difference between the association in edentulous patients with and without dentures.

Results: A total of 1,420 (81.8%) older adults died during the 27-year follow-up, with 478 (27.6%) cases attributable to heart disease. After controlling for potential confounders, edentulous patients with an ideal CVH (LS7 = 10–14) had a lower mortality risk than those with poor CVH (LS7 = 0–4). Furthermore, we observed an effect modification by denture use (P interaction = 0.046), with the role of ideal CVH in mitigating mortality among the denture wearers (Hazard Ratio = 0.440 [0.329–0.588]), while no significant association among those without dentures. Similar results were achieved for cardiovascular mortality, but there was no effect modification of denture use (P interaction = 0.352).

Conclusion: In this study, a favorable cardiovascular health profile presents a protective effect on all-cause mortality only among edentulous patients wearing dentures instead of non-wearer. Clinical Significance: Denture usage could improve oral function (e.g., chewing, smiling, speaking, etc.) and promote general health. Effect modification found in this study indicates having ideal CVH alone cannot substantially reduce mortality risk among edentulous patients. Therefore, health care professionals should keep an eye on the elderly not wearing dentures as they are probably more at risk for adverse health outcomes. It remains unclear if denture wearing has a causal relation with lower mortality risks, and further research is needed.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's9
StatusPublished - nov.-2022

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