Objectives Since HIV has become a manageable chronic disease, employment is of increasing importance for people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the level of work participation among PLWH in the Netherlands, and the associated determinants of employment. Methods For this study the baseline measurements of a longitudinal cohort study with a 2-year follow-up, the TREVI project, were used. The TREVI project aims to study cognitive function disorders among PLWH in relation to their employment, productivity, and social functioning. From December 2012 until December 2013, data on cognitive functioning, measured by the HIV Dementia Scale, and medical data derived from patient records were collected. Employment status and possible determinants of employment were assessed by a digital survey. Chi square analysis and multivariate logistic regression analysis were conducted in order to investigate the level of employment and associated determinants of employment. Results This cross-sectional study revealed significant differences in the level of employment compared with Dutch reference data: i.e. in the age group 40-54 years PLWH had a significantly lower employment rate than the general Dutch population. Multivariate analysis showed that employment was negatively associated with a lower or higher age (reference: 40-54 years), a longer period since diagnosis, problems with physical functioning, and a higher score on the HADS Depression. Having paid work at diagnosis was positively associated with employment. Conclusion PLWH, particularly in the age of 40-54, in the Netherlands have a significant lower level of employment compared to the general population. Counseling should address reduced psychological and physical functioning in order to improve the position of PLWH on the labor market.