Background: Post-treatment high-grade gliomas are usually monitored with contrast-enhanced MRI, but its diagnostic accuracy is limited as it cannot adequately distinguish between true tumor progression and treatment-related changes. According to recent response assessment in neuro-oncology (RANO) recommendations PET overcomes this limitation. However, it is currently unknown which tracer yields the best results. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the different PET tracers in differentiating tumor progression from treatment-related changes in high-grade glioma patients. Methods: Pubmed, Web of Science and Embase were searched systematically. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment were performed independently by two authors. Meta-analysis was performed using a bivariate random effects model when ≥ 5 studies were included. Results: 39 studies (11 tracers) were included in the systematic review. 18F-FDG (12 studies, 171 lesions) showed a pooled sensitivity and specificity of 84% (95%CI 72-92) and 84% (69-93), respectively. 18F-FET (7 studies, 172 lesions) demonstrated a sensitivity of 90% (81-95) and specificity of 85% (71-93). 11C-MET (8 studies, 151 lesions) sensitivity was 93% (80-98) and specificity was 82% (68-91). The number of included studies for the other tracers were too low to combine, but sensitivity and specificity ranged between 93-100% and 0-100% for 18F-FLT, 85-100% and 72-100% for 18F-FDOPA and 100% and 70-88% for 11C-CHO, respectively. Conclusion:18F-FET and 11C-MET, both amino-acid tracers, showed a comparable higher sensitivity than 18F-FDG in the differentiation between tumor progression and treatment-related changes in high-grade glioma patients. The evidence for other tracers is limited, thus 18F-FET and 11C-MET are preferred when available. Our results support the incorporation of amino-acid PET tracers for the treatment evaluation of high-grade gliomas.