Dictatuur en geschiedschrijving

Jan van Muilekom


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    In 1939, General Francisco Franco made an end to the Second Spanish Republic and established a dictatorial regime that managed to maintain itself until shortly after his death in 1975. The dictator came to power after a bloody civil war ushered in by a coup d'état on July 17 and 18, 1936. Throughout the period 1939-1977, the regime showed a keen interest in the country's recent history, in particular in the period 1931-1952, years crucial for the preparation, execution and consolidation of Franco's seizure of power. To what extent did it succeed in controlling historiography?
    In the first half of the 1940s, the Francoists so heavily exercised historical propaganda and repression of the Spanish historical world that until 1960 there was hardly any censorship in the strict sense of the word.
    The way in which the Spanish government tried to influence the view on history subsequently took on a completely different character in the 1960s and 1970s: the balance between propaganda and censorship was shifting in favor of the second.
    Censorship proved itself to be unpredictable. From the outset, the issue was whether the author could be considered a "friend of the regime"; there were also regular interventions by the head of state, Francisco Franco, himself.
    Cautious reformers among historians did come up with many new facts, descriptions, explanations, and judgments, but doubts about the justice, inevitability, and positive consequences of Franco's rebellion didn’t appear. They also avoided any comment that could question the personal integrity of the dictator and did not make negative judgments on concrete actions of the army and its officers. Until the mid-1970s, furthermore, it was not mentioned that during the Spanish Civil War, there had been systematically planned terror in the National Zone.
    By making use of historians who were willing to censor their colleagues, the Franco regime in the period 1939-1977 largely succeeded in keeping control on the historiography of the internal and foreign policies of the years 1931-1952. However, from the mid-1960s onwards, it reluctantly had to leave the initiative back where it belonged: with the professional historian.
    Originele taal-2Dutch
    KwalificatieDoctor of Philosophy
    Toekennende instantie
    • Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
    • de Baets, Antoon, Supervisor
    • Storm, H.J., Supervisor, Externe Persoon
    Datum van toekenning26-nov.-2020
    Plaats van publicatie[Groningen]
    Gedrukte ISBN's9789464190458
    StatusPublished - 2020

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