Dietary Considerations in Tyrosinemia Type I

Francjan J. van Spronsen*, Margreet van Rijn, Uta Meyer, Anibh M. Das

*Corresponding author voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

22 Citaten (Scopus)
179 Downloads (Pure)


Since the introduction of 2-(2 nitro-4-3 trifluoro-methylbenzoyl)-1, 3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC), life expectancy of HT1 patients greatly improved. However, due to treatment with NTBC, tyrosine concentrations greatly increase. As a consequence to possible neurocognitive problems, the main objective of dietary therapy in HT1 is to provide adequate nutrition allowing normal growth and development while strictly controlling tyrosine levels in blood (and tissues). Although no well-defined target levels exist, tyrosine concentrations below 400 mu mol/L are considered to be safe. To achieve this aim a diet restricted in natural protein and supplemented with a special tyrosine and phenylalanine-free amino acid mixture is necessary.

Dietary management could be strenuous at diagnosis due to several different problems. If vomiting and diarrhea are a major issue at diagnosis, frequent feeding with additional energy from low protein food is needed for catch-up growth. Initiation of dietary treatment is usually easier if diagnosis is directly after birth. Based on newborn screening when infants are still reasonable healthy. If presenting clinically infants may experience serious difficulties in taking the amino acid mixtures probably due to feeding problems while when presenting after some 2-3 months taste development and the difference in the taste of amino acid mixtures compared to regular formula and breast milk increase difficulties with the treatment.

Following a dietary treatment is even harder than taking some medicine. Older children and adolescents often relax the diet and at some age become reluctant to stick to a strict regimen. Therefore, adequate training and information should be given to the patients and the family at regular intervals. To achieve this, a multidisciplinary approach involving pediatricians/physicians, dieticians, psychologists and social workers is an asset for the care of patients with HT1.

Originele taal-2English
TitelHereditary tyrosinemia
Subtitelpathogenesis, screening and management
RedacteurenRM Tanguay
UitgeverijSpringer International Publishing AG
Aantal pagina's8
ISBN van elektronische versie978-3-319-55780-9
ISBN van geprinte versie978-3-319-55779-3
StatusPublished - 2017

Publicatie series

NaamAdvances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
ISSN van geprinte versie0065-2598


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