Differentiated integration in the European Union: a concept, a process, a system or a theory?

Benjamin Leruth*, Christopher Lord

*Corresponding author voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutput: EditorialAcademicpeer review

91 Citaten (Scopus)


Differentiation has been a feature of European integration for more than two decades. Nowadays, more than half of European Union (EU) policies are now implemented in different ways. Recent debates over a potential British exit from the EU revived discussions on the future of European integration, offering a potential case for disintegration. Yet scholars and practitioners still find it difficult to define the notion. The introduction to this collection offers a survey of the literature on differentiated integration, its most recent developments and justifies why the study of differentiation needs to move up the research agenda of European integration. It suggests that studying differentiated integration as a concept, a process, a system and a theory is the minimum needed to understand it. Finally, it demonstrates the necessity to study differentiation as a permanent and 'normal' feature of European integration.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)754-763
Aantal pagina's10
TijdschriftJournal of European Public Policy
Nummer van het tijdschrift6
StatusPublished - 3-jul.-2015
Extern gepubliceerdJa


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