The activity state of cofilin, which controls actin dynamics, is driven by a phosphorylation -dephosphorylation cycle. Phosphorylation of cofilin by LIM-kinases results in its inactivation, a process supported by 14-3-3 zeta and reversed by dephosphorylation by slingshot phosphatases. Here we report on a novel cellular function for the phosphorylation -dephosphorylation cycle of cofilin. We demonstrate that muscarinic receptor-mediated stimulation of phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is controlled by LIM-kinase, slingshot phosphatase as well as 14-3-3 zeta, and requires phosphorylatable cofilin. Cofilin directly and specifically interacts with PLD1 and upon phosphorylation by LIM-kinase1, stimulates PLD1 activity, an effect mimicked by phosphorylation-mimic cofilin mutants. The interaction of cofilin with PLD1 is under receptor control and encompasses a PLD1-specific fragment (aa 585 -712). Expression of this fragment suppresses receptor-induced cofilin-PLD1 interaction as well as PLD stimulation and actin stress fiber formation. These data indicate that till now designated inactive phospho-cofilin exhibits an active cellular function, and suggest that phospho-cofilin by its stimulatory effect on PLD1 may control a large variety of cellular functions.