To study the incidence of CVD in men at risk, with and without LUTS.
We searched all longitudinal studies describing the association between LUTS and CVD (mortality) in October 2013 and December 2014 using MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library Central Register. PRISMA criteria were met.
We included five studies with 6027 men with LUTS and 18,993 men without LUTS in the meta-analyses, with a follow-up period varying from 5 to 17 years. Studies totalled 2780 CVD events. No clear association between CVD and LUTS was demonstrated [pooled effect size: hazard ratio 1.09 (95 % CI 0.90-1.31); p = 0.40]. Two other studies reported the association between nocturia and (CVD) mortality. CVD-specific mortality risk was approximately two times higher for Japanese men with nocturia (357 men aged 70 years and over, 5-year follow-up). A univariable association between nocturia and all-cause mortality was found in Dutch men, but not in age-adjusted analyses (1114 men aged 50-78 years, 13-year follow-up).
This meta-analysis conducted on longitudinal studies does not confirm LUTS to be a predictor of CVD in men without a history of CVD, despite the observed association between LUTS and CVD in cross-sectional studies.