Umbilical cord blood (CB) is a convenient and broadly used source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. However, limiting numbers of HSCs remain a major constraint for its clinical application. Although one feasible option would be to expand HSCs to improve therapeutic outcome, available protocols and the molecular mechanisms governing the selfrenewal of HSCs are unclear. Here, we show that ectopic expression of a single microRNA (miRNA), miR-125a, in purified murine and human multipotent progenitors (MPPs) resulted in increased self-renewal and robust long-term multi-lineage repopulation in transplanted recipient mice. Using quantitative proteomics and western blot analysis, we identified a restricted set of miR-125a targets involved in conferring long-term repopulating capacity to MPPs in humans and mice. Our findings offer the innovative potential to use MPPs with enhanced self-renewal activity to augment limited sources of HSCs to improve clinical protocols.