Effect of dietary interventions on markers of type 2 inflammation in asthma: A systematic review

Edith Visser*, Anneke Ten Brinke, Dionne Sizoo, Janneke J. S. Pepels, Lianne Ten Have, Erica van der Wiel, Tim van Zutphen, Huib A. M. Kerstjens, Kim de Jong

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

Onderzoeksoutputpeer review

1 Citaat (Scopus)
21 Downloads (Pure)

Samenvatting

INTRODUCTION: Type 2 (T2) inflammation is a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of asthma. Diet may have immunomodulatory effects, and a role for diet in T2 inflammation has been suggested in the literature. Indeed, diet and food allergies play a role in children with atopic asthma, but less is known about diet in relation to adult asthma, which is often non-atopic.

OBJECTIVE: To review the effect of dietary interventions on markers of T2 inflammation in adults with asthma.

METHODS: The databases PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL were searched for eligible studies until December 2022. We included studies of all types of foods, nutrients, diets or supplements, either as an exposure or as an intervention, in adults and adolescents with asthma. Outcomes of interest included the T2 biomarkers FeNO, eosinophils, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil peroxidase. The methodological quality of eligible studies was systematically evaluated, and the results were summarised according to dietary clusters.

RESULTS: The systematic search identified studies on the dietary clusters antioxidants (n = 14), fatty acids, (n = 14), Mediterranean-style diets (n = 5), phytotherapy (n = 7), prebiotics & probiotics (n = 8), vitamin D (n = 7), and other dietary factors (n = 5). Studies within the phytotherapy and omega-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) clusters showed possible improvements in T2 inflammation. Furthermore, we found little evidence for an effect of antioxidants, prebiotics & probiotics, and Mediterranean-style diets on T2 inflammation. However, heterogeneity in study protocols, methodological shortcomings and limited power of almost all studies make it difficult to fully determine the impact of different dietary approaches on T2 inflammation in asthma.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the current evidence does not support a specific dietary intervention to improve T2 inflammation in asthma. Interventions involving phytotherapy and omega-3 PUFA currently have the best evidence and warrant further evaluation in well-designed and adequately powered studies, while taking into account T2-high phenotypes of asthma.

Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer107504
Aantal pagina's15
TijdschriftRespiratory Medicine
Volume221
DOI's
StatusPublished - jan.-2024

Citeer dit