Effect of different forefoot rocker radii on lower-limb joint biomechanics in healthy individuals

L. van Kouwenhove*, G. J. Verkerke, K. Postema, R. Dekker, J. M. Hijmans

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

3 Citaten (Scopus)
49 Downloads (Pure)


Introduction: Previous studies showed that rocker shoes with a stiff forefoot rocker profile significantly reduce peak plantar flexion moment at the ankle (PFM) and peak ankle dorsiflexion (DF). Both parameters are related to Achilles tendon and Plantar Fascia unloading. The shape of an outsole with a forefoot rocker is described with multiple rocker design parameters. The aim of this research is, to determine the relation between different forefoot rocker radii on peak DF and peak PFM at a self-selected walking speed.

Methods: 10 participants walked in standard shoes and three experimental pairs of shoes with different forefoot rocker radii. Lower extremity kinematics and kinetics were collected while walking on an instrumented treadmill at preferred walking speed and analysed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) (? = .05; post-hoc ? = .05/ 6).

Results: Peak value analyses showed significant decreases in peak DF, peak PFM, and peak ankle power generation for the rocker conditions. No relevant significant differences were found in spatio-temporal parameters and total work at the ankle joint. SPM showed a significant decrease (% gait cycle) in DF (40?69 %), PFM (7?15 %; 41?68 %; 69?81 %), ankle power (10?15 %; 32?51 %; 55?64 %; 64?67 %; 72?80 %) and foot-to-horizontal angle (FHA) (0?4 %; 40?62 %; 92?100 %) and an increased shank-to-vertical angle (SVA) (44?84 %) for the rocker conditions.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that rocker shoes with a proximally placed apex significantly reduce DF and PFM during the third rocker compared with control shoes. This effect is mainly explained by a change in the FHA. Smaller radii cause the largest reductions in DF and PFM, so therefore, a uniform standardisation of the forefoot rocker radius is essential.

Originele taal-2English
Pagina's (van-tot)150-156
Aantal pagina's7
TijdschriftGait & Posture
Vroegere onlinedatum2021
StatusPublished - mei-2021

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