AIM: To assess the effects of a targeted and tailored pharmacist-led intervention among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) who are non-adherent to antihypertensive drugs.
METHODS: A cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in 10 community health centres (CHCs) in Indonesia among T2DM patients aged ≥18 years who reported non-adherence to antihypertensive drugs according to the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS-5). Patients in CHCs randomised to the intervention group received a tailored intervention based on their adherence barriers (e.g., forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, lack of motivation, and/or other drug-related problems) using a simple question-based flowchart at baseline and 1-month follow-up. Patients in control CHCs received usual care. Primary outcome was the between-group difference in change in MARS-5 score from baseline to 3-months follow-up. Secondary outcomes included changes in patients' blood pressure and their medication beliefs. Differences in difference in primary and secondary outcomes between groups were assessed using General Linear Models.
RESULTS: In total, 201 patients were screened for eligibility, 113 met the inclusion criteria and participated; 89 (79%) patients had complete follow-up. Forgetfulness (42%) and lack of knowledge (18%) were the most common adherence barriers identified at baseline. The intervention improved medication adherence by 4.62 points on the MARS-5 scale [95%CI: 0.93 to 8.34, p-value = 0.008]. There were no significant changes in blood pressure levels and beliefs about antihypertensive drugs.
CONCLUSION: A tailored low-cost pharmacist-led intervention aimed at non-adherent T2DM patients resulted in an improvement in medication adherence to antihypertensive drugs. There were no significant changes in secondary outcomes.