BACKGROUND: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), as a group of persistent organic pollutants, are linked to impaired immune function and low-grade inflammation in adults and children. However, the potential of PAHs to lead to a cytokine storm associated with AhR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor) and NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain containing 3) in humans has been poorly studied.
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the associations between PAH exposure, AhR and NLRP3 expression, and cytokines associated with a cytokine storm in healthy preschoolers.
METHODS: Basic demographic surveys and physical examinations were conducted on 248 preschoolers from an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling area (Guiyu, n = 121) and a reference area (Haojiang, n = 127). Ten urinary PAH metabolite (OH-PAH) concentrations were measured. We also measured the expression levels of AhR and NLRP3 and seventeen serum cytokine levels.
RESULTS: The concentrations of multiple OH-PAHs were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the reference group, especially 1-hydroxynaphthalene (1-OH-Nap) and 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OH-Nap). PAH exposure was closely related to a child's living environment and hygiene habits. Expression levels of AhR and NLRP3 were significantly higher in the exposed group than in the reference group. Similarly, serum IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, and IFN-γ levels were notably higher in the e-waste-exposed children than in the reference children. After adjusting for age, gender, BMI, family income, parental education level, and second-hand smoke exposure, we found that increased PAH exposure was associated with higher AhR and NLRP3 expression and elevated IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-18, IL-22, IL-23, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels. The associations between PAH exposure and IL-1β, IL-18, IFN-γ, and TNF-β were mediated by NLRP3 expression, and the relationships between PAH exposure and IL-4, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-22, IL-23, and TNF-α were mediated by AhR expression.
CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that the association between PAH exposure and a cytokine storm may be mediated by AhR and NLRP3 expression among preschoolers.