Identification of safe and effective adjuvants remains an urgent need for the development of inactivated influenza vaccines for mucosal administration. Here, we used a murine challenge model to evaluate the adjuvant activity of GPI-0100, a saponin-derived adjuvant, on influenza subunit vaccine administered via the intranasal or the intrapulmonary route. Balb/c mice were immunized with 1 mu g A/PR/8 (H1N1) subunit antigen alone or in combination with varying doses of GPI-0100. The addition of GPI-0100 was required for induction of mucosal and systemic antibody responses to intranasally administered influenza vaccine and significantly enhanced the immunogenicity of vaccine administered via the intrapulmonary route. Remarkably, GPI-0100-adjuvanted influenza vaccine given at a low dose of 2x1 mu g either in the nares or directly into the lungs provided complete protection against homologous influenza virus infection.