Epigenetic Regulation of S100A9 and S100A12 Expression in Monocyte-Macrophage System in Hyperglycemic Conditions

Dieuwertje M Mossel*, Kondaiah Moganti, Vladimir Riabov, Christel Weiss, Stefan Kopf, Julio Cordero, Gergana Dobreva, Marianne G Rots, Harald Klüter, Martin C Harmsen, Julia Kzhyshkowska

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review

16 Citaten (Scopus)
106 Downloads (Pure)


The number of diabetic patients in Europe and world-wide is growing. Diabetes confers a 2-fold higher risk for vascular disease. Lack of insulin production (Type 1 diabetes, T1D) or lack of insulin responsiveness (Type 2 diabetes, T2D) causes systemic metabolic changes such as hyperglycemia (HG) which contribute to the pathology of diabetes. Monocytes and macrophages are key innate immune cells that control inflammatory reactions associated with diabetic vascular complications. Inflammatory programming of macrophages is regulated and maintained by epigenetic mechanisms, in particular histone modifications. The aim of our study was to identify the epigenetic mechanisms involved in the hyperglycemia-mediated macrophage activation. Using Affymetrix microarray profiling and RT-qPCR we identified that hyperglycemia increased the expression of S100A9 and S100A12 in primary human macrophages. Expression of S100A12 was sustained after glucose levels were normalized. Glucose augmented the response of macrophages to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-ligands Palmatic acid (PA) and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) i.e., pro-inflammatory stimulation. The abundance of activating histone Histone 3 Lysine 4 methylation marks (H3K4me1, H3K4me3) and general acetylation on histone 3 (AceH3) with the promoters of these genes was analyzed by chromatin immunoprecipitation. Hyperglycemia increased acetylation of histones bound to the promoters of S100A9 and S100A12 in M1 macrophages. In contrast, hyperglycemia caused a reduction in total H3 which correlated with the increased expression of both S100 genes. The inhibition of histone methyltransferases SET domain-containing protein (SET)7/9 and SET and MYND domain-containing protein (SMYD)3 showed that these specifically regulated S100A12 expression. We conclude that hyperglycemia upregulates expression of S100A9, S100A12 via epigenetic regulation and induces an activating histone code on the respective gene promoters in M1 macrophages. Mechanistically, this regulation relies on action of histone methyltransferases SMYD3 and SET7/9. The results define an important role for epigenetic regulation in macrophage mediated inflammation in diabetic conditions.

Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's19
TijdschriftFrontiers in Immunology
StatusPublished - 2-jun.-2020

Citeer dit