This paper used stable isotope analysis (δ 13C and δ 15N) to examine whether intra- and inter-site sex and age differences existed within two distinct communities of Roman Macedonia in relation to the dietary preferences of their inhabitants. It also explored the degree of influence that the micro-ecology characterising the sub-region each community used to reside and the social status of these individuals had in determining the observed dietary profiles. The results showed no sex and age intra-community differences, but did reveal important inter-site differences. Together these observed patterns have implications regarding the way archaeologists and more specifically bioarchaeologists still examine social groups in relation to food; oversimplified divisions on inequalities in the household domain need to be reconsidered, or at least justified. They also show the potential bioarchaeology holds to enlighten aspects of the social history of the ‘common’ people residing in the provinces. It lastly argues for the potential of science-based approaches to the study of food to provide supplementary information regarding past dietary preferences that can be used as a proxy to detect variable degrees of incorporation into the globalising networks of the Roman world and argues for a closer collaboration between bioarchaeology and current theoretical discussions on Romanization.