Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a severe mental disorder with an unknown etiology. Recent researches indicate that correct myelination and translational regulation play a role in the pathogeny of SCZ. This study evaluated the expression pattern of Ermin (ERMN) and Listerin E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 1 (LTN1) genes, which play a role in myelination and ribosome quality control, respectively. The expression of the ERMN and LTN1 genes in the peripheral blood (PB) of 50 SCZ patients (male/female: 22/28, age (mean ± standard deviation (SD)): 35.9 ± 5.6) and 50 matched healthy controls (male/female: 23/27, age (mean ± SD): 34.7 ± 5.4) were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, we used a bioinformatics approach based on microarray dataset analysis to examine the expression of these two genes in olfactory epithelium (OE) specimens. The expression of ERMN demonstrated no significant differences in PB samples among SCZ patients and healthy controls (adjusted P-value = 0.101). The expression of LTN1 was significantly higher in PB samples obtained from female patients compared with sex-matched controls (posterior beta = 1.734, adjusted P-value < 0.0001). Significant correlations were found between expression of the mentioned genes in PB samples both among SCZ patients and among healthy controls (r = 0.485, P < 0.001 and r = 0.516, P < 0.001, respectively). According to our in silico findings, the ERMN expression levels in OE samples of SCZ were statistically higher than those in controls (log2FC = 1.93, adj.P.Val = 9.66E-15). On the contrary, LTN1 expression levels in OE samples were statistically lower in SCZ cases versus controls (log2FC = − 0.77, adj.P.Val = 2.14E-06). Besides, a significant correlation was found between the expression of the mentioned genes in OE samples (r = − 0.60, P < 0.001). In conclusion, the present study is the first evidence to highlight the expression of the ERMN and LTN1 genes in the periphery of SCZ patients. Our findings may provide light on the SCZ’s pathogeny.