Extracellular Vesicles in NAFLD/ALD: From Pathobiology to Therapy

Alejandra Hernández, Juan Pablo Arab, Daniela Reyes, Ainhoa Lapitz, Han Moshage, Jesús M Bañales, Marco Arrese

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In recent years, knowledge on the biology and pathobiology of extracellular vesicles (EVs) has exploded. EVs are submicron membrane-bound structures secreted from different cell types containing a wide variety of bioactive molecules (e.g., proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids (coding and non-coding RNA) and mitochondrial DNA). EVs have important functions in cell-to-cell communication and are found in a wide variety of tissues and body fluids. Better delineation of EV structures and advances in the isolation and characterization of their cargo have allowed the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of these particles to be explored. In the field of liver diseases, EVs are emerging as key players in the pathogenesis of both nonalcoholic liver disease (NAFLD) and alcoholic liver disease (ALD), the most prevalent liver diseases worldwide, and their complications, including development of hepatocellular carcinoma. In these diseases, stressed/damaged hepatocytes release large quantities of EVs that contribute to the occurrence of inflammation, fibrogenesis, and angiogenesis, which are key pathobiological processes in liver disease progression. Moreover, the specific molecular signatures of released EVs in biofluids have allowed EVs to be considered as promising candidates to serve as disease biomarkers. Additionally, different experimental studies have shown that EVs may have potential for therapeutic use as a liver-specific delivery method of different agents, taking advantage of their hepatocellular uptake through interactions with specific receptors. In this review, we focused on the most recent findings concerning the role of EVs as new structures mediating autocrine and paracrine intercellular communication in both ALD and NAFLD, as well as their potential use as biomarkers of disease severity and progression. Emerging therapeutic applications of EVs in these liver diseases were also examined, along with the potential for successful transition from bench to clinic.

Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer817
Aantal pagina's14
TijdschriftCells
Volume9
Nummer van het tijdschrift4
DOI's
StatusPublished - apr-2020

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