Functional neuroimaging techniques (i.e. single photon emission computed tomography, positron emission tomography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging) have been used to assess the neural correlates of anosognosia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). A systematic review of this literature was performed, following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses statement, on PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO databases. Twenty-five articles met all inclusion criteria. Specifically, four brain connectivity and 21 brain perfusion, metabolism, and activation articles. Anosognosia is associated in MCI with frontal lobe and cortical midline regional dysfunction (reduced perfusion and activation), and with reduced parietotemporal metabolism. Reduced within and between network connectivity is observed in the default mode network regions of AD patients with anosognosia compared to AD patients without anosognosia and controls. During initial stages of cognitive decline in anosognosia, reduced indirect neural activity (i.e. perfusion, metabolism, and activation) is associated with the cortical midline regions, followed by the parietotemporal structures in later stages and culminating in frontotemporal dysfunction. Although the current evidence suggests differences in activation between AD or MCI patients with anosognosia and healthy controls, more evidence is needed exploring the differences between MCI and AD patients with and without anosognosia using resting state and task related paradigms.