Interleukin-1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) is an important asthma gene. (Epi)genetic regulation ofIL1RL1protein expression has not been established. We assessed the association betweenIL1RL1single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs),IL1RL1methylation and serum IL1RL1-a protein levels, and aimed to identify causal pathways in asthma.Associations ofIL1RL1SNPs with asthma were determined in the Dutch Asthma Genome-wide Association Study cohort and three European birth cohorts, BAMSE (Children/Barn, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, an Epidemiological survey), INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) and PIAMA (Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy), participating in the Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy study. We performed blood DNAIL1RL1methylation quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis (n=496) and (epi)genome-wide protein QTL analysis on serum IL1RL1-a levels (n=1462). We investigated the association ofIL1RL1CpG methylation with asthma (n=632) and IL1RL1-a levels (n=548), with subsequent causal inference testing. Finally, we determined the association of IL1RL1-a levels with asthma and its clinical characteristics (n=1101).IL1RL1asthma-risk SNPs strongly associated withIL1RL1methylation (rs1420101; p=3.7×10-16) and serum IL1RL1-a levels (p=2.8×10-56).IL1RL1methylation was not associated with asthma or IL1RL1-a levels. IL1RL1-a levels negatively correlated with blood eosinophil counts, whereas there was no association between IL1RL1-a levels and asthma.In conclusion, asthma-associatedIL1RL1SNPs strongly regulateIL1RL1methylation and serum IL1RL1-a levels, yet neither theseIL1RL1-methylation CpG sites nor IL1RL1-a levels are associated with asthma.