DNA-testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 has become incorporated in the diagnostic procedure of patients with breast and/or ovarian cancer. Since 1994 an immense amount of information has been gathered on mutation spectra, mutation risk assessment, cancer risks for mutation carriers, factors that modify these risks, unclassified DNA variants, surveillance strategies and preventive options. For the patient and family the main determinator still is whether a mutation is found or not. When a pathogenic mutation is detected in an index case, relatives can opt for pre-symptomatic DNA testing. However in the vast majority no mutation, or only unclear mutations are detectable yet. This means that a hereditary cause cannot be excluded, but pre-symptomatic DNA-testing is still unavailable for relatives. Surveillance for both index cases and relatives is based of the family history of cancer. Next generation genetic testing may help to elucidate genetic causes in these families. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.