Objective: The GRIN2A gene has been associated with both benign childhood epilepsies and severe epileptic encephalopathies. This study evaluates the genotype-phenotype correlations in patients with GRIN2A variants. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed, identifying all patients reported before May 2014 with GRIN2A variants. Patients were classified in two groups based on their GRIN2A genotype. Group I genotypes had an expected detrimental effect on protein expression: nonsense, frameshift, splice site, or initiation codon sequence variants, translocations with breakpoints within GRIN2A, or deletions comprising GRIN2A. Group II genotypes were expected to result in an altered protein structure or function: missense or in-frame sequence variants. Results: Of 136 patients, 74 were included in group I and 62 in group II. Epilepsy was diagnosed in 86% of patients in both groups, with focal seizures being most common (82%). Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) was significantly more often diagnosed in group II than in group I (51% versus 27%, p=0.03). Continuous spikes and waves during slow-wave sleep (CSWS) and Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) occurred more often in group I than in group II (50% versus 37%), although not statistically significant (p=0.29). Mild to severe developmental problems related to speech and language (80%), cognition (66%), and motor skills (48%), and behavioural problems (61%) were present in both groups. Speech and language problems were significantly more often reported in group I than in group II (90% versus 69%, p=0.02), also in patients with no LKS/CSWS (94% versus 50%, p=0.01). Conclusion: GRIN2A variants are associated with a spectrum of epilepsies, mainly accompanied by language developmental problems. This epilepsy-aphasia syndrome spectrum ranges from relatively mild BECTS to more severe LKS/CSWS. This study shows that GRIN2A genotypes with an expected milder effect on protein function are associated with a relatively more benign phenotype including BECTS without language problems.
|Status||Published - mei-2015|