Menstrual bleeding, pregnancy and delivery present an intrinsic haemostatic challenge to women with bleeding disorders such as factor XI (FXI) deficiency. Aim: To provide a systematic overview of studies on gynaecological and obstetrical bleeding problems in women with FXI deficiency. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane library for studies that present original data on the incidence of and treatment options for gynaecological and obstetrical bleeding in FXI-deficient women. Results: We identified 27 studies, including a total of 372 women with FXI deficiency. All studies were observational, no interventional treatment studies were found. Most patients had a mild deficiency (FXI >= 20 IU dL(-1)). Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) was reported in 7-67%. In 7/19 (37%) women who underwent gynaecological procedures, a bleeding complication occurred, including in 2/7 hysterectomies (29%). About 3-20% of reported pregnancies ended in a miscarriage; of these miscarriages 0-25% (4/23 miscarriages) were complicated by bleeding. Terminations of pregnancies (TOP) were complicated by bleeding in 4 out of 11 cases (36%). In 90 out of 498 (18%) deliveries a postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) was reported, ranging from 0 to 50% in individual studies. In 21% (66/321) of deliveries, prophylaxis was given. This was associated with 9% (6/66) PPH, compared to 19% in deliveries without prophylaxis (84/432). Epidural analgesia was performed without complications in 44 patients. Conclusion: Women with FXI deficiency have a clearly increased risk of HMB, and of bleeding complications after miscarriage, TOP and delivery. No high quality data are available regarding prophylactic treatment.