Objective: To evaluate associations of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin-T (cTnT) with cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart failure (HF), and mortality in community-dwelling women and men. Participants and Methods: A total of 8226 adults from the Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease (PREVEND) cohort (1997–1998) were enrolled in a prospective observational study (mean age: 49 years; 50.2% women). Sex-specific associations of cTnT levels with future clinical outcomes were evaluated using adjusted Cox-regression models. Results: Measurable cTnT levels (≥3 ng/L) were detected in 1102 women (26.7%) and in 2396 men (58.5%). Baseline cTnT levels were associated with a greater risk of developing CVD in women than men [Hazard ratio (HRwomen), 1.48 per unit increase in log2-cTnT; 95% CI, 1.21 to 1.81 vs HRmen, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.35; Pinteraction<.001]. Similar sex-related differences were observed for HF (Pinteraction= .005) and mortality (Pinteraction= .008). Further, compared with referent category (cTnT <3 ng/L), women with cTnT levels greater than or equal to 6 ng/L had a significantly increased risk for CVD (HR, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.45 to 3.64), HF (HR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.41 to 5.80), and mortality (HR, 2.65; 95% CI, 1.52 to 4.61), whereas men with cTnT levels greater than or equal to 6 ng/L had a significantly increased risk only for CVD (HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.13). Conclusion: Baseline cTnT levels were associated with future CVD, HF, and mortality in both sexes, and these associations were stronger in women. Future studies are needed to determine the value of cTnT in early diagnosis of CVD, particularly in women.