Human Cardiac 31P-MR Spectroscopy at 3 Tesla Cannot Detect Failing Myocardial Energy Homeostasis during Exercise

Adrianus J. Bakermans, Jason N. Bazil, Aart J. Nederveen, Gustav J. Strijkers, S. Matthijs Boekholdt, Daniel A. Beard, Jeroen A. L. Jeneson

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    Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (P-31-MRS) is a unique non-invasive imaging modality for probing in vivo high-energy phosphate metabolism in the human heart. We investigated whether current P-31-MRS methodology would allow for clinical applications to detect exercise-induced changes in (patho-) physiological myocardial energy metabolism. Hereto, measurement variability and repeatability of three commonly used localized 31P-MRS methods [3D image-selected in vivo spectroscopy (ISIS) and 1D ISIS with 1D chemical shift imaging (CSI) oriented either perpendicular or parallel to the surface coil] to quantify the myocardial phosphocreatine (PCr) to adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio in healthy humans (n = 8) at rest were determined on a clinical 3 Tesla MR system. Numerical simulations of myocardial energy homeostasis in response to increased cardiac work rates were performed using a biophysical model of myocardial oxidative metabolism. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was modeled by either inefficient sarcomere ATP utilization or decreased mitochondrial ATP synthesis. The effect of creatine depletion on myocardial energy homeostasis was explored for both conditions. The mean in vivo myocardial PCr/ATP ratio measured with 3D ISIS was 1.57 +/- 0.17 with a large repeatability coefficient of 40.4%. For 1D CSI in a 1D ISIS-selected slice perpendicular to the surface coil, the PCr/ATP ratio was 2.78 +/- 0.50 (repeatability 42.5%). With 1D CSI in a 1D ISIS-selected slice parallel to the surface coil, the PCr/ATP ratio was 1.70 +/- 0.56 (repeatability 43.7%). The model predicted a PCr/ATP ratio reduction of only 10% at the maximal cardiac work rate in normal myocardium. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy led to lower PCr/ATP ratios for high cardiac work rates, which was exacerbated by creatine depletion. Simulations illustrated that when conducting cardiac P-31-MRS exercise stress testing with large measurement error margins, results obtained under pathophysiologic conditions may still lie well within the 95% confidence interval of normal myocardial PCr/ATP dynamics. Current measurement precision of localized P-31-MRS for quantification of the myocardial PCr/ATP ratio precludes the detection of the changes predicted by computational modeling. This hampers clinical employment of P-31-MRS for diagnostic testing and risk stratification, and warrants developments in cardiac P-31-MRS exercise stress testing methodology.

    Originele taal-2English
    Artikelnummer939
    Aantal pagina's13
    TijdschriftFrontiers in Physiology
    Volume8
    DOI's
    StatusPublished - 27-nov.-2017

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