Human-in-the-loop optimization of rocker shoes via different cost functions during walking

Thijs Tankink*, Juha M. Hijmans, Raffaella Carloni, Han Houdijk

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

OnderzoeksoutputAcademicpeer review


Personalised footwear could be used to enhance the function of the foot–ankle complex to a person’s maximum. Human-in-the-loop optimization could be used as an effective and efficient way to find a personalised optimal rocker profile (i.e., apex position and angle). The outcome of this process likely depends on the selected optimization objective and its responsiveness to the rocker parameters being tuned. This study aims to explore whether and how human-in-the-loop optimization via different cost functions (i.e., metabolic cost, collision work as measure for external mechanical work, and step distance variability as measure for gait stability) affects the optimal apex position and angle of a rocker profile differently for individuals during walking. Ten healthy individuals walked on a treadmill with experimental rocker shoes in which apex position and angle were optimized using human-in-the-loop optimization using different cost functions. We compared the obtained optimal apex parameters for the different cost functions and how these affected the selected gait related objectives. Optimal apex parameters differed substantially between participants and optimal apex positions differed between cost functions. The responsiveness to changes in apex parameters differed between cost functions. Collision work was the only cost function that resulted in a significant improvement of its performance criteria. Improvements in metabolic cost or step distance variability were not found after optimization. This study showed that cost function selection is important when human-in-the-loop optimization is used to design personalised footwear to allow conversion to an optimum that suits the individual.
Originele taal-2English
Aantal pagina's7
TijdschriftJournal of biomechanics
StatusPublished - 28-feb.-2024

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