Photopharmacology uses light to regulate the biological activity of drugs. This precise control is obtained through the incorporation of molecular photoswitches into bioactive molecules. A major challenge for photopharmacology is the rational design of photoswitchable drugs that show light-induced activation. Computer-aided drug design is an attractive approach toward more effective, targeted design. Herein, we critically evaluated different structure-based approaches for photopharmacology with Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (eDHFR) as a case study. Through the iterative examination of our hypotheses, we progressively tuned the design of azobenzene-based, photoswitchable eDHFR inhibitors in five design-make-switch-test-analyze cycles. Targeting a hydrophobic subpocket of the enzyme and a specific salt bridge only with the thermally metastable cis-isomer emerged as the most promising design strategy. We identified three inhibitors that could be activated upon irradiation and reached potencies in the low-nanomolar range. Above all, this systematic study provided valuable insights for future endeavors toward rational photopharmacology.