Recurrent miscarriage is a reproductive disorder affecting many couples. Although several factors are associated with recurrent miscarriage, in more than 50% of the cases the cause is unknown. Maladaptation of the maternal immune system is associated with recurrent miscarriage and could explain part of its pathophysiology. Modulating the maternal immune system toward pregnancy tolerance could benefit pregnancy outcome. Although there is a clear scientific rationale that modulating the maternal immune system could benefit recurrent miscarriage, only a few studies suggest possible beneficial effects of immune modulators as a therapy for recurrent miscarriage. Therapies skewing the maternal immune response to a tolerating regulatory T cell rich environment seem especially promising; however, more research is needed to find effective and safe maternal immune modulators for reproductive pathologies as recurrent miscarriage. Moreover, the possible side effects on maternal, fetal, and neonatal immune function are essentially unknown, and its elucidation is crucial before any possible therapeutic strategies could be clinically implemented. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
|Tijdschrift||European journal of obstetrics gynecology and reproductive biology|
|Status||Published - okt-2014|