Inhalable levodopa: from laboratory to the patient

Marianne Luinstra


1605 Downloads (Pure)


Levodopa is effective in alleviating the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, but a high variability in levodopa absorption from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration causes fluctuations in the levodopa plasma concentration. Pulmonary administration of levodopa may offer an attractive alternative to oral administration, die to the larger size of the absorption membrane and the relatively low metabolic activity in the lungs. For that reason, we assessed the ability of Parkinson’s disease patients to use a dry powder inhaler (Cyclops) suitable for the administration of a high dose of levodopa during an off period. Further, we developed a levodopa inhalation powder with a very low amount of excipient, using the simple particle preparation technique micronization. Next, we performed a pilot study where we assessed the pharmacokinetics and tolerability of the levodopa with 2% l-leucine inhalation powder from the Cyclops inhaler. We performed a single center, single ascending dose response study in eight Parkinson’s disease patients. It was observed that, after inhalation, the maximum levodopa blood level occurred between 5 to 15 minutes. After oral administration, the time to maximum levodopa blood level varied considerably more and ranged from 20 to 90 minutes. None of the patients experienced cough or dyspnea and no change in pulmonary function was measured. Additionally, we assessed the user ability and convenience of the Cyclops inhaler in 60 Parkinson’s patients. Both correct opening of the pouch the inhaler is stored in and correct opening of the inhaler were assessed.
Originele taal-2English
KwalificatieDoctor of Philosophy
Toekennende instantie
  • Rijksuniversiteit Groningen
  • Frijlink, Erik, Supervisor
  • van Laar, Teus, Supervisor
  • de Boer, Anne, Co-supervisor
Datum van toekenning28-feb.-2020
Plaats van publicatie[Groningen]
Gedrukte ISBN's978-94-034-2326-5
Elektronische ISBN's978-94-034-2327-2
StatusPublished - 2020


Duik in de onderzoeksthema's van 'Inhalable levodopa: from laboratory to the patient'. Samen vormen ze een unieke vingerafdruk.

Citeer dit