This chapter focuses on issues of Environmental and Infrastructure planning (EIP). The object of EIP is illustrated with the help of the three layers of the Environmental Layer Concept (ELC) – the Ground Layer, the Infrastructure Layer and the Occupancy Layer. The Ground Layer represents the natural conditions of the subsoil, such as soil types, water tables, altitude and geological characteristics which may be fixed or subject to natural changes. The Infrastructure Layer is composed of predominantly man-made structures such as transport infrastructure, pipelines and cable networks which may be visible or hidden, while the Occupancy Layer comprises the physical pattern and artefacts as a result of human activities. The ELC provides a framework used to illustrate the application area of EIP and its characteristics.
The notion that ‘Planning is done by people for people’ makes identification of actors who have a stake in a proposed project an important element in each and every EIP activity. An actor is a person, group or organization with common interests and /or objectives. The current tendency towards a more comprehensive style of planning aimed at consensus requires early identification of stakeholders and their relative importance for the planning process. Meaningful involvement of the stakeholders and communication with them is made difficult and may result in costly and frustrating delays in the project if no such analysis is made. The recognition of the importance of participation, communication and consensus has introduced new approaches to planning. Participation, consensus and communication are the key words and, with some changes in perspective and application area, will remain so throughout the book. The recognition of the presence of a multitude of stakeholders, different planning procedures and different interests implies that attention must be paid to the different ways of arriving at consensus.
|Titel||Environmental and Infrastructure Planning |
|Redacteuren||Gerard Linden, Henk Voogd|
|Plaats van productie||Groningen|
|ISBN van geprinte versie||90-71791-71-6|
|Status||Published - 2004|