Keeping the driver in the loop through semi-automated or manual lane changes in conditionally automated driving

J. Dillmann*, R. J.R. den Hartigh, C. M. Kurpiers, J. Pelzer, F. K. Raisch, R. F.A. Cox, D. de Waard

*Bijbehorende auteur voor dit werk

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In the current study we investigated if drivers of conditionally automated vehicles can be kept in the loop through lane change maneuvers. More specifically, we examined whether involving drivers in lane-changes during a conditionally automated ride can influence critical take-over behavior and keep drivers' gaze on the road. In a repeated measures driving simulator study (n = 85), drivers drove the same route three times, each trial containing four lane changes that were all either (1) automated, (2) semi-automated or (3) manual. Each ride ended with a critical take-over situation that could be solved by braking and/or steering. Critical take-over reactions were analyzed with a linear mixed model and parametric accelerated failure time survival analysis. As expected, semi-automated and manual lane changes throughout the ride led to 13.5% and 17.0% faster maximum deceleration compared to automated lane changes. Additionally, semi-automated and manual lane changes improved the quality of the take-over by significantly decreasing standard deviation of the steering wheel angle. Unexpectedly, drivers in the semi-automated condition were slowest to start the braking maneuver. This may have been caused by the drivers' confusion as to how the semi-automated system would react. Additionally, the percentage gaze off-the-road was significantly decreased by the semi-automated (6.0%) and manual (6.6%) lane changes. Taken together, the results suggest that semi-automated and manual transitions may be an alarm-free instrument which developers could use to help maintain drivers' perception-action loop and improve automated driving safety.

Originele taal-2English
Artikelnummer106397
Aantal pagina's10
TijdschriftAccident Analysis and Prevention
Volume162
DOI's
StatusPublished - nov-2021

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