Growing awareness of the environment and new regulations of the International Maritime Organization and the European Union are forcing ship-owners to reduce pollution. The use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is one of the most promising options for achieving a reduction in pollution for inland shipping and short sea shipping. However, the infrastructure to facilitate the broad use of LNG is yet to be developed. We advance and analyze models that suggest LNG infrastructure development plans for refueling stations that support pipeline-to-ship and truck-to-ship bunkering, specifying locations, types, and capacities, and that take into account the characteristics of LNG, such as boil-off during storage and loading. We develop an effective primal heuristic, based on Lagrangian relaxation, for the solution of the models. We validate our approach by performing a computational study for the waterway network in the Arnhem-Nijmegen region in the West-European river network, including, among others, multi-year scenarios in which capacity expansion and reduction are possible.
|Tijdschrift||Transportation Research. Part C: Emerging Technologies|
|Status||Published - nov-2020|