LOFAR discovery and wide-band characterisation of an ultra-steep spectrum AGN radio remnant associated with Abell 1318

Aleksandar Shulevski, Marisa Brienza, Francesco Massaro, Raffaella Morganti, Huib Intema, Tom Oosterloo, Francesco De Gasperin, Kamlesh Rajpurohit, Thomas Pasini, Alexander Kutkin, Dany Vohl, Elizabeth A.K. Adams, Björn Adebahr, Marcus Brüggen, Kelley M. Hess, Marcel G. Loose, Leon C. Oostrum, Jacob Ziemke

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We present the discovery of a very extended (550 kpc) and low-surface-brightness (3.3 µJy arcsec−2 at 144 MHz) radio emission region in Abell 1318. These properties are consistent with its characterisation as an active galactic nucleus (AGN) remnant radio plasma, based on its morphology and radio spectral properties. We performed a broad-band (54–1400 MHz) radio spectral index and curvature analysis using LOFAR, uGMRT, and WSRT-APERTIF data. We also derived the radiative age of the detected emission, estimating a maximum age of 250 Myr. The morphology of the source is remarkably intriguing, with two larger, oval-shaped components and a thinner, elongated, and filamentary structure in between, plausibly reminiscent of two aged lobes and a jet. Based on archival Swift as well as SDSS data we performed an X-ray and optical characterisation of the system, whose virial mass was estimated to be ∼7.4 × 1013 M. This places A1318 in the galaxy group regime. Interestingly, the radio source does not have a clear optical counterpart embedded in it, thus, we propose that it is most likely an unusual AGN remnant of previous episode(s) of activity of the AGN hosted by the brightest group galaxy (∼2.6 × 1012 M), which is located at a projected distance of ∼170 kpc in the current epoch. This relatively high offset may be a result of IGrM sloshing sourced by a minor merger. The filamentary morphology of the source may suggest that the remnant plasma has been perturbed by the system dynamics, however, only future deeper X-ray observations will be able to address this question.

Originele taal-2English
ArtikelnummerA171
Aantal pagina's15
TijdschriftAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume682
DOI's
StatusPublished - 1-feb.-2024

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