The technology underlying the development of novel ventilatory modes for long-term noninvasive ventilation of patients with chronic hypercapnia is continuously evolving. Volume-targeted pressure-controlled ventilation is a hybrid ventilation mode designed to combine the advantages of conventional ventilation modes, while avoiding their drawbacks. However, manufacturers have created different names and have patented algorithms and set-up variables, which can result in confusion for physicians and respiratory therapists. In addition, clear evidence for the superiority of this novel mode has not yet been established. These factors have most likely hindered more widespread use of this mode in clinical practice. The current review presents the rationale, working principles, characteristics and set-up recommendations associated with volume-targeted modes. In addition, it summarises the clinical and laboratory studies that have challenged this mode.