The hallmark of eukaryotic cells is compartmentalization of distinct cellular functions into specific organelles. This necessitates the cells to run energetically costly mechanisms to precisely control maintenance and function of these compartments. One of these continuously controls organelle activity and abundance, a process termed homeostasis. Yeast peroxisomes are favorable model systems for studies of organelle homeostasis because both the proliferation and degradation of these organelles can be readily manipulated. Here, we highlight recent achievements in regulation of peroxisome turnover in yeast, in particular Hansenula polymorpha, with a focus on directions of future research. (C) 2003 Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies.