Objectives We study the role of marital status and living arrangements in mortality among a 50+ population living in Europe by gender and welfare states. Methods Using data from waves 4, 5, and 6 of the Survey of Health Age and Retirement in Europe (n = 54,171), we implemented Cox proportional hazard models by gender and age groups (50-64 and 65-84). We estimated pooled models and separated models for two regions representing different welfare states (South-East and North-West). Results Among people aged 50-64, nonpartnered individuals (except never-married women) showed a higher mortality risk as compared with those partnered. Among the older population (65-84), divorce was associated with higher mortality among men, but not among women, and living with someone other than a partner was associated with higher mortality risk as compared to those partnered. In the South-East region living with a partner at ages 50-64 was associated with lower mortality. Conclusions Partnership and residential status are complementary for understanding the role of family dimensions in mortality. The presence of a partner is mortality protective, especially among 50-64-year-old men in South-East Europe.