Nucleophosmin-1 (NPM1) mutations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) confer a survival advantage in the absence of FLT3-internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD). Here, we investigated the main predictors of outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). We identified 1572 adult (age >= 18 year) patients with NPM1-mutated AML in first complete remission (CR1:78%) or second complete remission (CR2:22%) who were transplanted from matched sibling donors (30.8%) or unrelated donors (57.4%) between 2007 and 2019 at EBMT participating centers. Median follow-up for survivors was 23.7 months. FLT3-ITD was present in 69.3% of patients and 39.2% had detectable minimal/measurable residual disease (MRD) at transplant. In multivariate analysis, relapse incidence (RI) and leukemia-free survival (LFS) were negatively affected by concomitant FLT3-ITD mutation (HR 1.66 p = 0.0001, and HR 1.53, p < 0.0001, respectively), MRD positivity at transplant (HR 2.18, p < 10(-5) and HR 1.71, p < 10(-5), respectively), and transplant in CR2 (HR 1.36, p = 0.026, and HR 1.26, p = 0.033, respectively), but positively affected by Karnofsky score >= 90 (HR 0.74, p = 0.012, and HR 0.7, p = 0.0002, respectively). Overall survival (OS) was also negatively influenced by concomitant FLT3-ITD (HR 1.6, p = 0.0001), MRD positivity at transplant (HR 1.61, p < 10(-5)), and older age (HR 1.22 per 10 years, p < 0.0001), but positively affected by matched sibling donor (unrelated donor: HR 1.35, p = 0.012; haploidentical donor: HR 1.45, p = 0.037) and Karnofsky score >= 90 (HR 0.73, p = 0.004). These results highlight the independent and significant role of FLT3-ITD, MRD status, and disease status on posttransplant outcomes in patients with NPM1-mutated AML allowing physicians to identify patients at risk of relapse who may benefit from posttransplant prophylactic interventions.