With increasing rates of in-hospital cardiac arrest, improving resuscitation outcomes is essential. Mechanical chest compressors seem to be related to improved outcome in out-of hospital cardiac arrest; however, the literature on its use in in-hospital cardiac arrest is scarce. We used the Medline public database to systematically review patient outcomes considering mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation in in-hospital cardiac arrest. Fourteen studies were found, most cases (n=17), three cohort studies, a clinical pilot study and a registry study. The reported survival rate was high (35 out of 89 patients, 39%) and full neurological recovery was described in 91% of the survivors. Two studies did not report survival rates. Especially in patients with in-hospital cardiac arrest because of treatable causes, early start of mechanical chest compressions could improve future patient outcomes because of better (coronary and brain) perfusion during mechanical chest compressions compared with manual chest compressions. However, the current literature is probably influenced by publication bias and more high-quality research is needed. Copyright (C) 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.