Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model for mitral annular dilatation simulation and determine its effects on the individualized mitral valve (MV) coaptation reserve index (CRI).
Design: A retrospective analysis of intraoperative transesophageal 3-dimensionalechocardiographic MV datasets was performed. A mathematical model was created to assess the mitral CRI for each leaflet segment (A1-P1, A2-P2, A3-P3). Mitral CRI was defined as the ratio between the coaptation reserve (measured coaptation length along the closure line) and an individualized correction factor. Indexing was chosen to correct for MV sphericity and area of largest valve opening. Mathematical models were created to simulate progressive mitral annular dilatation and to predict the effect on the individual mitral CRI.
Setting: At a single-center academic hospital.
Participants: Twenty-five patients with normally functioning MVs undergoing cardiac surgery.
Measurements and Main Results: Direct measurement of leaflet coaptation along the closure line showed the lowest amount of coaptation (reserve) near the commissures (A1-P1 0.21 ± 0.05 cm and A3-P3 0.22 ± 0.06 cm), and the highest amount of coaptation (reserve) at region A2 to P2 0.25 ± 0.06 cm. After indexing, the A2-to-P2 region was the area with the lowest CRI in the majority of patients, and also the area with the least resistance to mitral regurgitation (MR) occurrence after simulation of progressive annular dilation.
Conclusions: Quantification and indexing of mitral coaptation reserve along the closure line are feasible. Indexing and mathematical simulation of progressive annular dilatation consistently showed that indexed coaptation reserve was lowest in the A2-to-P2 region. These results may explain why this area is prone to lose coaptation and is often affected in MR.