Background: The Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and potassium supplementation have been shown to reduce the risk of death with a functioning graft (DWFG) and renal graft failure in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Unfortunately, a key problem for patients is the adherence to these diets. The aim of this study is to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and budget impact of higher adherence to either the DASH or potassium supplementation. Methods: A Markov model was used to simulate the life course of 1000 RTR in the Netherlands. A societal perspective with a lifetime time horizon was used. The potential effect of improvement of dietary adherence was modelled in different scenarios. The primary outcomes are the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) and the budget impact. Results: In the base case, improved adherence to the DASH diet saved 27,934,786 and gained 1880 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Improved adherence to potassium supplementation saved euro1,217,803 and gained 2901 QALYs. Both resulted in dominant ICERs. The budget impact over a five-year period for the entire Dutch RTR population was euro8,144,693. Conclusion: Improving dietary adherence in RTR is likely to be cost-saving and highly likely to be cost-effective compared to the current standard of care in the Netherlands.