Mature lymphoproliferative diseases are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from different stages of B-cell and T-cell development. With improved understanding of the molecular processes in lymphoma and novel treatment options, arises a growing need for the molecular characterisation of tumours. Molecular imaging with single-photon-emission CT and PET using specific radionuclide tracers can provide whole-body information to investigate cancer biology, to evaluate phenotypic heterogeneity, to identify resistance to targeted therapy, and to assess the biodistribution of drugs in patients. In this Review, we evaluate the existing literature on molecular imaging in lymphoma, other than 18F-fluordeoxyglucose molecular imaging. The aim is to examine the contribution of molecular imaging to the understanding of the biology of lymphoma and to discuss potential implications for the diagnostics and therapy of this disease. Finally, we discuss possible applications for molecular imaging of patients with lymphoma in the clinical context.