OBJECTIVE: To determine the value of MRI for the detection and assessment of the anatomic extent of residual sarcoma after a Whoops procedure (unplanned sarcoma resection) and its utility for the prediction of an incomplete second resection.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included consecutive patients who underwent a Whoops procedure, successively followed by gadolinium chelate-enhanced MRI and second surgery at a tertiary care sarcoma center.
RESULTS: Twenty-six patients were included, of whom 19 with residual tumor at the second surgery and 8 with an incomplete second resection (R1: n = 6 and R2: n = 2). Interobserver agreement for residual tumor at MRI after a Whoops procedure was perfect (κ value: 1.000). MRI achieved a sensitivity of 47.4% (9/19), a specificity of 100% (7/7), a positive predictive value of 100% (9/9), and a negative predictive value of 70.0% (7/17) for the detection of residual tumor. MRI correctly classified 2 of 19 residual sarcomas as deep-seated (i.e., extending beyond the superficial muscle fascia) but failed to correctly classify 3 of 19 residual sarcomas as deep-seated. There were no significant associations between MRI findings (presence of residual tumor, maximum tumor diameter, anatomic tumor extent, tumor margins, tumor spiculae, and tumor tail on the superficial fascia) with an incomplete (R1 or R2) second resection.
CONCLUSION: Gadolinium chelate-enhanced MRI is a reproducible method to rule in residual sarcoma, but it is insufficiently accurate to rule out and assess the anatomic extent or residual sarcoma after a Whoops procedure. Furthermore, MRI has no utility in predicting an incomplete second resection.