Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a heme-containing peroxidase abundantly expressed in neutrophils and to a lesser extent in monocytes. Enzymatically active MPO, together with hydrogen peroxide and chloride, produces the powerful oxidant hypochlorous acid and is a key contributor to the oxygen-dependent microbicidal activity of phagocytes. In addition, excessive generation of MPO-derived oxidants has been linked to tissue damage in many diseases, especially those characterized by acute or chronic inflammation. It has become increasingly clear that MPO exerts effects that are beyond its oxidative properties. These properties of MPO are, in many cases, independent of its catalytic activity and affect various processes involved in cell signaling and cell-cell interactions and are, as such, capable of modulating inflammatory responses. Given these diverse effects, an increased interest has emerged in the role of MPO and its downstream products in a wide range of inflammatory diseases. In this article, our knowledge pertaining to the biologic role of MPO and its downstream effects and mechanisms of action in health and disease is reviewed and discussed. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2899-2937.