A number of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides in the hypothalamus play a role in the control of food intake, metabolism, and body weight. Particularly, noradrenergic mechanisms in several areas of the hypothalamus are involved. Control of peripheral metabolism by the hypothalamus is achieved via autonomic modulation of the function of hepatocytes, adipocytes, and the endocrine cells in the islets of Langerhans. The autonomic control mechanisms ultimately lead to an appropriate shaping of blood glucose, plasma FFA, and insulin profiles to guarantee an adequate flow of nutrients under different physiological situations. Peripheral insulin and glucose can penetrate into the brain where they might affect the function of those brain structures involved in control of food intake, metabolism, and body weight.