Background: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is the induced cooling of the entire body or specific organs to help prevent ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury, as may occur during major surgery, cardiac resuscitation, traumatic brain injury and stroke. Ischemia and reperfusion induce neuronal damage by mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative injury, ER stress, neuronal excitotoxicity, and a neuroinflammatory response, which may lead to activation of apoptosis pathways.
Scope of review: The aim of the current review is to discuss TTM targets that convey neuroprotection and to identify potential novel pharmacological intervention strategies for the prevention of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion injury.
Major conclusions: TTM precludes I/R injury by reducing glutamate release and oxidative stress and inhibiting release of pro-inflammatory factors and thereby counteracts mitochondrial induced apoptosis, neuronal excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. Moreover, TTM promotes regulation of the unfolded protein response and induces SUMOylation and the production of cold shock proteins. These advantageous effects of TTM seem to depend on the clinical setting, as well as type and extent of the injury. Therefore, future aims should be to refine hypothermia management in order to optimize TTM utilization and to search for pharmacological agents mimicking the cellular effects of TTM.
General significance: Bundling knowledge about TTM in the experimental, translational and clinical setting may result in better approaches for diminishing I/R damage. While application of TTM in the clinical setting has some disadvantages, targeting its putative protective pathways may be useful to prevent I/R injury and reduce neurological complications. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.